A quantum fluctuation is a temporary change in the energy state of void that causes the creation of particles and antiparticles that collide and annihilate each other.
In the case of the Big Bang, this alteration created enough particles and antiparticles to reach an infinite amount of pressure and temperature to trigger it.
But how do these fluctuations sparkle in the vacuum? The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, in addition to telling us that the values of two incompatible variables cannot always be determined with unlimited precision a priori, also tells us that energy and time are related to each other, and therefore the conservation of energy can be violated for very short periods of time: this causes quantum fluctuations, in which the lower the energy, the longer the violation persists. Then small amounts of energy can then appear in a vacuum that takes the form of pairs of particles and antiparticles.
The inflation, the expansion, of one of these bubbling micro-regions could be at the origin of our Universe and the others in the hypothetical Multiverse.
Representation of quantum fluctuations on space-time
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Quantum fluctuations – acronico.it